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Meaning of Key Terms

Meaning of Key Terms


    • This is the state of being “safe”; the condition of being protected from harm or other non-desirable outcomes. Safety can also refer to the control of recognized hazards in order to achieve an acceptable level of risk. 
  • Categories of Safety
  • Normative

    Normative safety is achieved when a product or design meets applicable standards and practices for design and construction or manufacture, regardless of the product’s actual safety history. 

  • Substantive

    Substantive or objective safety occurs when the real-world safety history is favorable, whether or not standards are met. 

  • Perceived

    Perceived or subjective safety refers to the users’ level of comfort and perception of risk, without consideration of standards or safety history.


  • The term Security is broadly used to refer to the protection of individuals, organizations, and assets against external threats and criminal activities that can be directed to such entities hence rendering them inactive. 
  • It is important to note that security is highly focused on the deliberate actions that are geared towards inflicting harm to an individual, organization, or even assets.